Biblical view of carbon dating
On the basis of the dating of the Edom highland excavations, Glueck's excavations at Tell el-Kheleifeh (which he identified with Solomon's Red Sea port of Ezion Geber in south Edom) and most IA sites in this region were reinterpreted as belonging to the 7th c. BCE phenomenon were discarded and assumed to date to the 7th–8th c. The C dates associated with smelting debris layers from Faynan reported here demonstrate intensive 10th–9th c.BCE industrial metallurgical activities conducted by complex societies.To help resolve these controversies, deeply stratified excavations to virgin soil were needed to date the full occupation span of KEN and measure the tempo and scale of metal production during the IA.Here, we report on the complete stratigraphic sequence at KEN from 2006 dated with a suite of 22 high-precision radiocarbon measurements and artifact data.
Beginning in the 1980s, this paradigm came under severe attack, primarily by so-called biblical minimalist scholars who argued that as the HB was edited in its final form during the 5th century (c.) BC (3), any reference in the text to events earlier than 500 BC were false (4).
1200–500 BCE) copper production center in the southern Levant demonstrate major smelting activities in the region of biblical Edom (southern Jordan) during the 10th and 9th centuries BCE.
Stratified radiocarbon samples and artifacts were recorded with precise digital surveying tools linked to a geographic information system developed to control on-site spatial analyses of archaeological finds and model data with innovative visualization tools.
The second major excavation campaign at KEN took place in 2006.
As part of the expedition, an ≈5 × 5-m excavation square was opened in the industrial slag mound from the surface to virgin soil, following the contours of the 2002 excavation, to a depth of ≈6.1 m (Fig. This excavation revealed 35 superimposed layers of crushed slag, tapped earth and clay, and other materials related to copper smelting in this area.
Above this were 3 m of crushed slag and other copper industry debris layers also representing repeated episodes of smelting, furnace destruction, and related activities.