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To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient.
In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.
When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25.
Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as Plaintext: Decryption is performed similarly, (There are different definitions for the modulo operation. I.e., if x n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.) Read more ...
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation.
To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher).
This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a).