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"ethnic restaurant", etc.), generally related to cultures of more recent immigrants, who arrived after the dominant population of an area was established.
Depending on which source of group identity is emphasized to define membership, the following types of (often mutually overlapping) groups can be identified: In many cases more than one aspect determines membership: for instance, Armenian ethnicity can be defined by citizenship of Armenia, native use of the Armenian language, or membership of the Armenian Apostolic Church.
Ethnic groups often continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool.
By way of language shift, acculturation, adoption and religious conversion, it is sometimes possible for individuals or groups to leave one ethnic group and become part of another (except for ethnic groups emphasizing homogeneity or racial purity as a key membership criterion).
The term ethnic group was first recorded in 1935 and entered the Oxford English Dictionary in 1972.
Herodotus (8.144.2) gave a famous account of what defined Greek (Hellenic) ethnic identity in his day, enumerating Whether ethnicity qualifies as a cultural universal is to some extent dependent on the exact definition used.
Ethnography begins in classical antiquity; after early authors like Anaximander and Hecataeus of Miletus, Herodotus in c.
480 BC laid the foundation of both historiography and ethnography of the ancient world.
The process that results in the emergence of an ethnicity is called ethnogenesis, a term in use in ethnological literature since about 1950.
The term may also be used with the connotation of something exotic (cf.